• UDAYA BHAASKAR BULUSU

    WITH THE BLESSING OF SRI LALITHA KAMESWARI MAHA TRIPURA SUNDARI

    SUPREME CONTROLLER OF THE UNIVERSE

  • UDAYA BHAASKAR BULUSU CATEGORIES

1. INTRODUCTION

ADHI PRANAVA NADHAM


THE ANCIENT INDIAN CIVILIZATION, CULTURE, SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT is one of the oldest (almost pioneering system) and begins with prehistoric human activity at Mehrgarh, in present-day Pakistan, and continues through the Indus Valley Civilization to early states and empires. If we can, keenly observe our Science and Technology from our Epics, we can understand, how advanced our systems are in arena of Space, Polar, Nuclear Sciences, Automobile Engineering, Information Technology, Communications.

Though the British colonial rule introduced western education in India and in the same we are learning today’s ongoing advancements and the achievement and presuming our in capabilities to attain them. But, the fact is the advancements are much farther to understand that has been explained in our ancient Vedas and epics.

Basically, Indians are basically Philosophical People who believes in Deeds and Acts and determines that the Karma is the resultants of life. And INDIA also is known as Karma Bhoomi and Karma literally means “Deed” or “Act”, and more broadly names the Universal Principle of Cause And Effect, Action And Reaction, which Hindus believe governs all consciousness. Karma is not Fate, for man acts with free will creating his own destiny. According to the Vedas, if we sow goodness, we will reap goodness; if we sow evil, we will reap evil. Karma refers to the totality of our actions and their concomitant reactions in this and previous lives, all of which determine our future. The conquest of karma lies in intelligent action and dispassionate reaction. Not all karmas rebound immediately. Some accumulate and return unexpectedly in this or other births. We produce Karma in four ways:

Through Thoughts

 Through Words

 Through Actions That We Perform Ourselves

 Through Actions Others Do Under Our Instructions

Everything that we have ever thought, spoken, done or caused is Karma; as is also that which we think, speak or do this very moment. Hindu scriptures divide karma into Three kinds:

Sanchita is the accumulated Karma. It would be impossible to experience and endure all Karmas in one life. From this stock of Sanchita Karma, a handful is taken out to serve one lifetime and this handful of actions, which has begun to bear fruit and which will be exhausted only on their fruit being enjoyed and not otherwise, is known as Prarabdha Karma.

Prarabdha Fruit-bearing Karma is the portion of accumulated Karma that has “Ripened” and appears as a particular problem in the present life.

Kriyamana is everything that we produce in current life. All Kriyamana Karmas flow in to Sanchita Karma and consequently shape our future. Only in human life we can change our future destiny. After death we loose Kriya Shakti (Ability To Act) and Do (Kriyamana) Karma until we are born again in Human Body.

Actions performed consciously are weighted more heavily than those done unconsciously. But just as poison affects us if taken unknowingly, suffering caused unintentionally will also give appropriate karmic effect. Only human beings that can distinguish right from wrong can do (Kriyamana) Karma. Animals and young Children are not creating New Karma (and thus can not affect their future destiny) as they are incapable of discriminating between right and wrong. However, all sentient beings can feel the effects of Karma, which are experienced as pleasure and pain.

Tulsidas, a Hindu saint, said: “Our destiny was shaped long before the body came into being.” As long as the stock of Sanchita Karma lasts, a part of it continues to be taken out as Prarabdha Karma for being enjoyed in one lifetime, leading to the cycle of Birth and Death. A Jiva cannot attain Moksha (Liberation) from the cycle of Birth and Death, until the accumulated Sanchita Karmas are completely exhausted.

The Cycle of Birth and Death on Earth is formed from 8.4 millions forms of life and only one of them is Human. Only as humans, are we in position to do something about our destiny by doing the right thing at the right time. Through Positive Actions, Pure Thoughts, Prayer, Mantra and Meditation, we can resolve the influence of the Karma in present life and turn the destiny for the better. A Spiritual Master knowing the sequence in which our Karma will bear fruit, can help us. As humans we have the opportunity to speed up our spiritual progress with practice of good Karma. We produce Negative Karma because we lack knowledge and clarity.

Unkindness yields spoiled fruits, called PAAP, and good deeds bring forth sweet fruits, called PUNYA. As one acts, so does he become: one becomes virtuous by virtuous action, and evil by evil action.

Though, Indians are philosophical people, our Ancient Indians has made enormous advancements which are far away to understand.

Ancient Indians has determined the relationship between Knowledge of Science and Technology, with Religion and Social Relations. The Archaeological remains of the Indus Valley reveal Knowledge of Applied Sciences. Scientific Techniques were adopted in Irrigation, Metallurgy, Making of Fired Bricks and Pottery, and Simple Reckoning and Measurement of Areas and Volumes. Aryan Achievements in the field of Astronomy, Mathematics and Medicine are well known. Chinese records indicate knowledge of a dozen books of Indian origin. Brahmagupta’s Sidhanta as well as Charaka’s and Susrata’s Samhitas were translated into Arabic in the 9th or 10th centuries A.D. In Ancient Indian Mathematics was known by the general name of Ganita, which included Arithmetic, Geometry, Algebra, Astronomy and Astrology.

It was Aryabhatta, who gave a new direction to Trigonometry. The Decimal System too was an innovation of India. By the Third Century B.C. Mathematics, Astronomy and Medicine began to develop separately. In the field of Mathematics Ancient Indians made Three Distinct Contributions, The Notation System, The Decimal System and the Use of Zero. The earliest epigraphic evidence of the use of Decimal System belongs to the Fifth Century A.D. Before these Numerals appeared in the West they had been used in India for Centuries. They are found in the inscriptions of Ashoka in the Third Century B.C. Indians were the first to use the Decimal System. The famous Mathematician Aryabhata (A.D. 476-500) was acquainted with it. The Chinese learnt this System from the Buddhist Missionaries, and the western world borrowed it from the Arab as when they came in contact with India. Zero was discovered by Indians in about the second century B.C. From the very beginning Indian Mathematicians considered Zero as a separate Numeral, and it was used in this sense in Arithmetic. In Arabia the earliest use of Zero appears in A.D. 873. The Arabs learnt and adopted it from India and spread it in Europe. So far as Algebra is concerned both Indians and Greeks contributed to it, but in Western Europe its knowledge was borrowed not from Greece but from the Arabs who had acquired it from India. In the second century B.C. Apastemba contributed to practical geometry for the construction of altars on which the kings could offer sacrifices. It describes acute angle, obtuse angle, right angle etc. Aryabhata formulated the rule for finding the Area of a Triangle, which led to the Origin of Trigonometry. The most famous work of his Time is the Suryasiddanta the like of which was not found in Contemporary ancient east.

During the Gupta period Mathematics was developed to such an extent and more Advanced than any other nation of Antiquity. Quite early India devised a Rudimentary Algebra which led to more Calculations than were possible for the Greeks and led to the Study of Number for its own sake. The earliest inscription regarding the Data by a System of Nine Digits and a Zero is dated as 595 A.D. evidently the system was known to Mathematicians some Centuries before it was employed in inscriptions. Indian Mathematicians such as Brahmagupta (7th century), Mahavira (9th century) and Bhaskara (12th century) made several discoveries which were known to Europe only after Renaissance. The understood the Importance of Positive and Negative Quantities, evolved sound System of extracting Squares and Cube Roots and could solve quadratic and certain types of Indeterminate Equations. Aryabhata gave approximate value of Pie. It was more accurate than that of the Greeks. Also some strides were made in Trigonometry, Empirical Geometry and Calculus. Chiefly in Astronomy the Mathematical implications of Zero and Infinity were fully realized unlike anywhere in the world. Among the various Branches of Mathematics, Hindus gave Astronomy the Highest Place of Honour. Suryasidhanta is the best know book on Hindu Astronomy. The text was later modified Two or Three Times between 500 A.D. and 1500 A.D. The System laid down in the book can even now be used to predict Eclipse within an error of two or three hours. The most renowned Scholars of Astronomy were Aryabhata and Varhamihira. Aryabhata belonged to the Fifth Century and Varahamihira to the Sixth. Aryabhata calculated the position of the planets according to the Babylonian method. He discovered the cause of Lunar and Solar Eclipses. The circumference of the earth which he measured on the basis of the speculation is considered to be correct even now. He pointed out that the sun is stationary and the earth rotates around it. The book of Aryabhata is the Aryabhatiya. Varhimihira’s well-known work is called Brihat Samhita which belongs to the Sixth Century A.D. Varhaihira stated that the Moon rotates around the Earth and the Earth Rotates around the Earth Rotates around the Sun. He utilized several Greek works to explain the Movement of the Planets and some other Astronomical Problems. Although Greek knowledge influenced Indian Astronomy, there is no doubt that Indian pursued the subject further and made use of it in their observations of the planets.Aryabhata wrote a book when he was barely 23 years. Varhmihira of the Sixth Century wrote a summary of Five Astronomical Books current wrote a summary of Five Astronomical Books current in his time. Brahamagupta of the seventh century A.D. appreciated the value of observation and astronomy and his book was translated into Arabic. One last great scientist was Bhaskara II. One of the chapters in the book Sidhanta Shiromani, dealing with mathematics, is the well-known work of Lilavait.Nevertheless, Indian views on the origin and evolution of the universe was matter of religion rather than of science. The Cosmic Schemes of Hindus and Jains in Fundamentals were the same. All postulated a flat earth although Indian Astronomers came to know that this was incorrect early in the Christian Era. The idea of flat such remained for religious purposes.

Regarding Astronomy proper it was studied as a Vedanta. Its name was Jyotisa. A primitive kind of Astronomy was developed mainly for the purpose of settling the Dates and Times at which Periodical sacrifices were to be performed. Several Greek words gained momentum in Sanskrit through knowledge of Greek Astronomy. The Sixth Century Astronomer Varahamihira called one of his Five Astronomical Systems as Romaka Sidhanta. It is only Western Astronomy that introduced in Indian the Sign of the Zodaic. The Seven-Day Week, the Hour, and several other ideas. Later, Indian Astronomers made some Advances on the knowledge of the Greeks and passed on their knowledge with that of Mathematics via the Arabs to Europe. As early as Seventh Century, a Syrian Astronomer knew of the Greatness of Indian Astronomy and Mathematics. In the field of Medicine, Aurveda was the contribution of India. Seven Hundred Hymns in the Vedas, particularly Atharva Veda, refer to topics of Ayurveda. Indeed, the whole approach was not scientific. The earliest mention of Medicines is in the Atharva Veda. As in order Ancient Societies, the remedies recommended in it are replete with magical charms and spells. Medicine could not develop along scientific lines.

In Post-MauryaTtime India witnessed Two famous Scholars of the Aurveda, Susrtua and Charaka. In the Susrutasmhita Susruta describes Methods of Operating Cataract, Stone Disease and several other Ailments. He mentions as many as 121 implements to be used for operations. For the treatment of disease he lays special emphasis on diet. And cleanliness for Charaka wrote the Charakasamhita in the second century A.D. It is like Encyclopedia of Indian Medicines. It describes various types of Fever, Leprosy, Hysteria and Tuberculosis. Possibly Charaka did not know that some of these are infections. His book contains the names of a large number of plants and herbs which were to be used as medicine. The book is thus useful not only for study of ancient Indian medicine but also for ancient Indian flora and chemistry. In subsequent centuries Indian medicines developed on the lines laid down by Charaka. The Vedic hymns attribute various diseases to demons and spirits and the remedies for hymns prescribing correctly the symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis, and connecting dropsy with heart diseases. However, National Medicine began to 800 B.C. Medicine became a regular subject of study at centers like Taxila and Varanasi. The latter specialized in surgery. Susrutasmhita was compiled in the fourth century A.D. Charaka compiled the teachings of two of his predecessors who served at Taxila. Charaka and Susruta’s Samhits reached as far as Manchuria through translations in Tibetan and other Asian languages. In the eighth century A.D. these books influenced European medicine as carried over by two Arabs. Charaka Samhita was published as late as 1550 in Arabic.

Despite these achievements, medicine did not make any remarkable strides, for absence of dissection led to ignorance of anatomy and physiology. Indians were equally aware of the functions of internal organs such as lungs and brain. Surgery of some kind was even during the Vedic period. It was only from the time of Susruta that surgery came to occupy an important place in medicine. Surgical operations were performed like taking the fetus out of the womb, including caesarian, section, treatment of fistula, removal of stone from bladder and plastic surgery for the nose. Despite the developments as the above in medicine, ancient Indian doctors, in general had no knowledge of the functions of brain, although they knew the importance of the spinal cord and the existence of nervous system. Once again social taboos stood in the way of the growth of medical knowledge. It was a taboo to touch dead bodies. Despite the fact that the physiological knowledge of ancient Indians was very poor, Indians evolved empirical surgery. They knew bone-setting, plastic surgery and surgeons in ancient India were experts is repairing noses, ears and lips lost, or injured by mutilation. The physician was a respectable member of society as the Vaidyas were ranked higher in the hierarchy. Even to this day the rules of professional behaviour laid down in medical tests are almost the same as those of Hippocrates. Of course, some statements at one place state that the Physicians should not betray the patients and should be always of pleasant speech. In this context, he pleads that every day they must pray on rising and going to bed, since the work of the welfare of the all beings specially cows.
Regarding physics, it was closely linked with religion and theology and it even differed from sect to sect. Almost all religions believed that the universe consisted of elements like earth, air, water, and akasa (ether). Most schools maintained that there were as many types of atoms as there were elements. Some Buddhists conceived atom as the minutes object capable of occupying space but also as occupying the minutest possible duration of time coming into being and vanishing almost in an instant only to be succeeded by another atom caused by the first. This somewhat resembles the quantum theory of Planck. The Vaisesika School believed a single atom to be a point in space completely without magnitude. Further, most of the schools believed that atoms constitute molecules. However, the Indian atomic theories were not based on experiment but intuitive logic. The great theologian Sankara strongly argued against their existence. Beyond this knowledge of atoms, physics in India did not develop much. However, in the science of acoustics, India made real discovers. Based on experience for this correct recitation on Vedas, the human era was highly trained for the phonetic study – distinguished musical tones far closer than those of other ancient musical systems much earlier than other civilization.

Regarding chemistry and metallurgy too, some progress was made in ancient times. The Harappans developed metallurgy of copper and bronze about 2500 B.C. The Vedic Aryans tanned leather, fermented grains and fruits, and dyed scale production of copper, iron and steel, brass, silver and gold and their alloys. Indian steel was highly esteemed in the ancient world and it was exported in large quantities. Tin and mercury were imported and worked. And from the seventh century, alchemy was referred to in literature. The medical chemistry of ancient India did succeed in producing many important alkalis, acids and metallic salts. It is claimed by Bashama that ancient Indians ever discovered a form of gun powder. The coming of middle ages, Indian chemists, like their counterparts in the rest of the world, became increasingly interested in a specific remedy for all diseases, the source of perpetual youth, and even the surest means to salvation. Although they could not make precious metals, they could understand the chemistry of metallic salts. The heights attained by Indians in metallurgy and engineering are borne out by the almost pure copper stature of Buddha found at Sultanganj and the famous iron Pillar at Mehrauli (Delhi which has been able to withstand rain and weather for centuries without rusting).

OLDEST CIVILIZATION

The bridge’s unique curvature and composition by age reveals that it is manmade. The legends as well as Archaeological Studies reveal that the First Signs of Human Inhabitants in Sri Lanka date back to the a primitive age, about 1,750,000 Years Ago and the bridge’s age is also almost equivalent.

We have found the facts that, before 7500 B.C. there was a Civilization & the Cities were existing in India. And it was also found that 11,000 B.C. – 9500 B.C. there exists an Ancient Indian Civilization. According to traditional sources, the events of the Ramayana occurred in theTreta yuga, the events of the Mahabharata occurred at the end of the Dvapara yuga, and we are currently in the Kali yuga. Since the Dvapara yuga is 864,000 years long, traditional sources place the Ramayana events ~900,000 years ago, and the Mahabharata events ~5000 years ago. According to historians and astronomers, however, the Ramayana events fall sometime between 2200-2000 BCE. This is largely based on analysis of astronomical phenomenon recorded in the oldest versions of the Ramayana. According to this scheme, the events of the Mahabharata would be placed circa 1500 BCE.

As for things like monkey-like race and so forth, alternative interpretations also exist. For example, the monkey-like people are referred to in the Ramayana as vanara which is derived from vana (forest) + nara (man/person). So, the term vanara may be a reference to a forest-dwelling tribe, which later became a term used for apes.

THE ANCIENT INDIAN CIVILIZATION, CULTURE, SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT has covered all the major branches of Human Knowledge and Activities, including Mathematics, Astronomy, Physics, Chemistry, Medical Science & Surgery, Fine Arts, Mechanical & Production Technology, Civil Engineering & Architecture, Shipbuilding & Navigation, Sports & Games.

Ancient India was a land of Sages, Saints and Seers as well as a Land of Scholars & Scientists. Ancient Indians contribution to Science and Technology include:

Mathematics “Vedic literature is replete with concepts of ZERO, the Techniques of Algebra and Algorithm, Square Root and Cube Root. Arguably, the Origins of Calculus lie in India 300 years before Leibnitz and Newton.

Astronomy “ Rig Veda (2000 BC) refers to Astronomy.

Physics “Concepts of Atom and Theory of Relativity were explicitly stated by an Indian Philosopher around 600 BC.

Chemistry “Principles of chemistry did not remain abstract but also found expression in Distillation of Perfumes, Aromatic Liquids, Manufacturing of Dyes & Pigments, and Extraction of Sugar.

Medical Science & Surgery “Around 800 BC, First Compendium on Medicine & Surgery was complied in Ancient India.

Fine Arts “Vedas were Recited and Recitation has to be correct, which gave rise to a finer study of Sound and Phonetics. The natural corollary was Emergence of Music and other forms of Performing Arts.

Mechanical & Production Technology “Greek historians have testified to Smelting of certain Metals in India in the 4th Century BC.

Civil Engineering & Architecture “The discovery of urban settlements of Mohenjodaro and Harappa indicate existence of Civil Engineering & Architecture, which blossomed to a Highly Precise Science of Civil Engineering & Architecture and found expression in innumerable monuments of Ancient India.

Shipbuilding & Navigation“Sanskrit and Pali Texts have several references to Maritime activity by Ancient Indians.

Sports & Games “Ancient India is the Birth Place of Chess, Ludo, Snakes & Ladders and Playing Cards.

ANCIENT INDIAN ACHIEVEMENTS

Earliest known Precise Celestial Calculations: Aryabhata, an Indian Mathematician (c. 500AD) accurately calculated celestial constants like earth’s rotation per solar orbit, days per solar orbit, days per lunar orbit.

Astronomical Time Spans: Apart from the peoples of the Mayan civilization, the ancient Hindus appear to be the only people who even thought beyond a few thousand years. Hindu scriptures refer to time scales that vary from ordinary earth day and night to the day and night of the Brahma that are a few billion earth years long.

Theory of Creation of the Universe: A 9th century Hindu scripture, The Mahapurana by Jinasena claims that the world is uncreated, as time itself is, without beginning and end. And it is based on principles.

Earth goes round the Sun: Aryabhata, it so happens, was apparently quite sceptical of the widely held doctrines about eclipses and also about the belief that the Sun goes round the Earth. As early as the sixth century, he talked of the diurnal motion of the earth and the appearance of the Sun going round it.

Binary System of Number Representation: A Mathematician named Pingala (c. 100BC) developed a system of binary enumeration convertible to decimal numerals. He described the system in his book called Chandahshaastra. The system he described is quite similar to that of Leibnitz, who was born in the 17th century.

Earliest and only known Modern Language: Panini (c 400BC), in his Astadhyayi, gave formal production rules and definitions to describe Sanskrit grammar. Starting with about 1700 fundamental elements, like nouns, verbs, vowels and consonents, he put them into classes. The construction of sentences, compound nouns etc. was explained as ordered rules operating on underlying fundamental structures.

Invention of Zero: Although ancient Babylonians were known to have used what is often called “place holders” to distinguish between numbers like 809 and 89, they were nothing more than blank spaces or at times two wedge shapes like”. The first notions of zero as a number and its uses have been found in ancient Mathematical treatise from India.
• The word “Algorithm”: Al-Khwarizmi’s work, De numero indorum (Concerning the Hindu Art of Reckoning), was based presumably on an Arabic translation of Brahmagupta where he gave a full account of the Hindu numerals which was the first to expound the system with its digits 0,1,2,3,…,9 and decimal place value which was a fairly recent arrival from India. The new notation came to be known as that of al-Khwarizmi, or more carelessly, algorismi; ultimately the scheme of numeration making use of the Hindu numerals came to be called simply algorism or algorithm, a word that, originally derived from the name al-Khwarizmi.

Representing Large Numbers: Mathematicians in India invented the base ten system in ancient times. But research did not stop there. The practice of representing large numbers also evolved in ancient India. notion of representing large numbers as powers of 10, one that was invented in India, turned out to be extremely handy.

Important Dates in Indian History

BC – BEFORE CHRIST

3000-1500 – INDUS VALLEY CIVILISATION

576 – BIRTH OF GAUTAM BUDDHA

527– BIRTH OF MAHAVIR

327-326 – ALEXANDER’S INVASION OF INDIA. IT OPENED A LAND ROUTE BETWEEN INDIA AND EUROPE

313 – ACCESSION OF CHANDRAGUPTA MAURYA ACCORDING TO JAIN TRADITIONS

305 – DEFEAT OF SELEUCUS AT THE HANDS OF CHANDRAGUPTA MAURYA

273-232 – ASHOKA’S REIGN

261 – CONQUEST OF KALINGA

145-101 – REGION OF ELARA, THE CHOLA KING OF SRI LANKA

58 – BEGINNING OF VIKRAMI ERA

AD – AFTER DEATH OF CHRIST

78 – BEGINNING OF SAKA ERA

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